Cells in human body rely on sugar to function normally. Sugar inters into the cells with facilitation of a hormone called insulin that is made in the pancreas, a gland in the abdomen. When amount of produces insulin is low or body does not respond to insulin properly, there is increase of sugar in the blood. That condition is called diabetes mellitus
There are two different types of diabetes:
Type 1 diabetes. In that condition the pancreas does not make any or makes too little insulin.
Type 2 diabetes. The body stops responding to insulin normally and with time, the pancreas stops making appropriate amount of insulin. Obesity increases risk of developing type 2 diabetes, but people with normal weight can get diabetes, too.
"A" - A1C is a blood test reflecting average levels of blood sugar during the previous 2-3 months.
"B" - Blood pressure control is important to decrease risks of strokes, heart attacks, vision problems and kidney damage.
"C" – Cholesterol control. It is a substance found in the blood. High cholesterol is another important factor that may contribute to strokes, heart attacks and other serious health issues.
People with diabetes have 2 to 3 higher chances of a stroke and heart attack, have them at younger age and more likely to have kidney disease. Keeping blood sugar levels normal or close to normal prevents, blindness, nerve damage (neuropathy that causes numbness or pain in hands and feet), kidney damage and small vessel damage that may lead to amputation of body parts.
There are few numbers that are important to remember. A1C levels should be below 7 percent, blood pressure below 130/80 or lower, LDL cholesterol level below 100 (LDL also called the "bad cholesterol")
Treatment of diabetes should include medications, proper diet and a healthy lifestyle that includes daily exercises, weight control and definitely no smoking.