Urinary tract infections, called "UTIs," are infections of the urinary bladder or the kidneys. When bacteria travels to the bladder through urethra and infects urinary bladder, it is called ‘cystitis.” When infection spreads through ureters to the kidneys, “pyelonephritis” or kidney infection develops.
Both infections are more common in women than men. Affected people have frequent urination, urgency and blood in the urine. When infection spreads to the kidneys, there is also back or flank pain, fever, chills and nausea or vomiting.
UTI’s are diagnosed by obtaining detailed history, performing physical exam and testing urine for presence of infection. Occasionally urine sent to a lab for culture and sensitivity to antibiotics and blood tests and imaging are done to evaluate kidney function and look for other abnormalities.
UTI’s are treated with antibiotics and medications that help to alleviate symptoms. People with recurrent urinary tract infections need to have further evaluation.
UTI prevention includes: